Nursing Intervention Diabetes

Nursing Intervention Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a disease which causes the body to produce insufficient insulin. The most common type of diabetes is type 1 diabetes. It occurs when the pancreas stops producing insulin and cannot be controlled by diet alone. This article discusses nursing interventions for diabetes mellitus.

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Nursing Interventions for Diabetes Mellitus

  • Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels
  • Blood pressure control
  • Oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin therapy, and dietary management

Assessment of patient is done first.

Assessment of patient is done first.

  • Vital signs are taken for example, respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Skin condition is assessed by looking at the color of the skin and its temperature as well as observing any wounds or blisters in order to detect possible infections that may be present in order to prevent further complications from occurring.
  • Diet habits are assessed by asking questions about what type of food they eat on a daily basis and what time they usually have their meals so that you can determine if there are any abnormalities with regards to their dieting habits which may lead to problems later on such as hypertension or diabetes mellitus (DM).4

The patient’s vital signs must be checked.

You will need to check the patient’s vital signs. Vital signs include blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. You may also want to check pulse oximetry and oxygen saturation.

The nurse must assess the patient’s skin condition.

The nurse must assess the patient’s skin condition. Skin color, temperature, moisture and turgor are important indicators of overall health. If you see any signs of abnormality or dryness, notify your supervisor immediately so that a plan of care can be implemented to fix the problem at hand.

Some things to look for:

  • Skin lesions/rashes (e.g., psoriasis)
  • Skin turgor (moisture)
  • Skin color

The diet of the patient is also important to check.

Regular blood sugar monitoring, a balanced diet and exercise are important aspects of maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. Your doctor or nurse may have recommended that you check your blood glucose level one to four times per day. This will help you monitor how food affects your diabetes and make changes if necessary.

Diet is an essential part of managing diabetes because what we eat directly affects our blood glucose levels and overall health. A diet plan may be tailored to meet individual needs based on factors such as age, weight, activity level and medical history (including the presence or absence of other chronic conditions like hypertension or high cholesterol). It should include:

  • Foods low in fat; saturated fats found in meat products raise cholesterol levels which may increase risk for heart disease
  • A variety of fruits and vegetables
  • Whole grains (such as oats) instead of refined grains (like white rice) because they contain more fiber which helps improve digestion as well as control hunger between meals

All medications taken are also checked.

All medications taken are also checked.

  • Medications for diabetes should be taken as prescribed.
  • Medications for diabetes are usually given before meals. This can be in the form of a pill or liquid. The dose may need to be adjusted based on the severity of your disease, your response to treatment and other factors such as age and weight changes over time (these adjustments will be made by your healthcare provider).
  • Some symptoms that may indicate a problem with your medicine: blurred vision; feeling faint; unusual fatigue or weakness; unusual hunger, thirst or urination; nausea vomiting diarrhea fever chills joint pain muscle aches skin rashes shortness of breath numbness/tingling/swelling of legs/arms/hands fainting

A blood and urine test is conducted to assess the kidney function.

A urine test is conducted to assess kidney function. The urine test can be done by collecting a sample of urine in a cup and sending it to the lab for analysis, or you can use a home monitoring device that measures the level of certain substances in your body.

A blood test is also useful in evaluating how well your kidneys are working and whether there are any signs of damage. This type of test will tell you more about what’s going on inside your body, including things like:

  • How much sugar (glucose) is found in your blood? Too much glucose can indicate diabetes or other systemic health issues.

The neurological status and peripheral circulation should be assessed.

The neurological status and peripheral circulation should be assessed. The patient’s level of consciousness, orientation, ability to follow commands, motor activity and tone should be evaluated. The patient’s peripheral circulation can be assessed by reviewing the pedal pulses and capillary refill.

Assess the level of consciousness, aphasia or confusion.

  • Assess the level of consciousness, aphasia or confusion.
  • Ask the patient to follow commands: “Close your eyes” and “Open your eyes.”
  • Ask the patient to speak: “What is your name?”
  • Ask them to perform a task: Show two fingers on one hand, then point at one of them without looking at it with your right hand. The goal is for them to point accurately with their left index finger. If this fails consistently, suspect an injury to their right hemisphere (the side where language functions normally).
  • Ask them to respond to stimuli: Tap on their knee while they keep their eyes closed; they should name what they feel (e.g., “pain”). If they don’t answer correctly, suspect an injury affecting awareness of body parts or sensation from those parts (e.g., numbness).
  • Describe their pain by asking questions like “Where does it hurt?” and “How does it feel?”

Assess the blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, serum potassium levels and calculated anion gap.

  • Your patient is experiencing nausea and vomiting, which is common in patients with ketoacidosis.
  • The serum potassium level should be assessed as hyperkalemia can result in cardiac dysrhythmias and death. Hyperkalemia may also be accompanied by a widened QRS complex on the electrocardiogram (ECG).
  • Serum creatinine levels are also important to assess because they help determine renal function, which can affect the ability of your patient’s kidneys to excrete acid properly.

A nurse intervenes accordingly with regards to data values obtained from assessment.

The nurse intervenes accordingly with regards to data values obtained from assessment. The individual’s VBG, capillary blood glucose (CBG), and HbA1c are monitored daily. The results of all laboratory tests should be recorded in the client’s medical record.

The above nursing interventions for diabetes mellitus are some of the common types that a nurse can recommend. A patient with diabetes mellitus can take these interventions and be healthy.

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